In the last year, the Department of Justice (DOJ) has brought more than 100 criminal cases relating to Paycheck Protection Program (PPP) Fraud.  These criminal prosecutions started at a blistering pace, with the first indictments coming within the very first months of the program’s inception. This wave of criminal prosecutions and convictions related to some of the more flagrant abuses – individuals who fraudulently obtained funds from the program and then went on spending sprees for things like Lamborghinis, mansions, and private jet travel.

These prosecutions focused on individuals and organized groups who obtained or used PPP funds fraudulently, often including charges for false statements (18 U.S.C. § 1001), aggravated identify theft (18 U.S.C. § 1028A(a)(1)), false statements in a loan application (18 U.S.C. § 1014), wire fraud (18 U.S.C. § 1343), bank fraud (18 U.S.C. § 1344), and Title 26 tax charges. Along with these prosecutions came significant resources, including new fraud coordinators and data analytics teams across the country.

Now, we are starting to see the first civil enforcement actions relating to the program. This signals a new phase of enforcement for the DOJ and all organizations who benefited from the program must pay close attention.


Continue Reading PPP Investigations, Settlements and Litigation on the Horizon

The Seventh Circuit’s rejection of the implied certification theory of liability gave rise, in part, to the circuit split resolved by the Supreme Court’s opinion in Escobar.  In its first FCA decision since the Supreme Court’s opinion – U.S. ex rel. Sheet Metal Workers International Association v. Horning Investments, LLC, the Seventh Circuit sidestepped the question of whether the relator’s allegations that a government contractor’s certification of compliance with the Davis-Bacon Act amounted to an implied false certification sufficient to give rise to FCA liability.  Rather than tackle the implications of Escobar, the Seventh Circuit affirmed entry of summary judgment in favor of the contractor, explaining that the defendant’s conduct amounted to certifying compliance with an ambiguous statutory obligation and, therefore, did not constitute a “knowing” violation of the FCA.

Continue Reading Seventh Circuit Sidesteps Escobar; Boots FCA Claims for Lack of Knowledge